January 21, 2016

Running-related injuries: A literature review with injury risk screening

Michael Rosenblat


There are a number of assessment screening tools that are used to assess the risk of developing an injury in competitive and recreational sports. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) was one of the first tools created for this purpose. However, a recent systematic review with meta-analysis has shown that there is little correlation with FMS scores and injury risk (4). This may be due to the fact that the FMS was not created to assess sport specific risk factors. It was created as a general tool to assess common movement patterns.

In order to develop a valid outcome measure that can be used to assess the risk of developing running-related injuries, it is necessary to determine which injuries have the highest prevalence and incidence in runners. It is also beneficial to have a greater understanding of how certain characteristics, including experience and event-type, are associated with the described running-related injuries.

Once there is a clear understanding of the common running-related injuries, it is possible to determine the risk factors that are directly related to each injury. The appropriate variables/risk factors were collected and incorporated into a structured orthopaedic assessment tool and running gait analysis.

The tools provided below have not been assessed for validity or reliability. Additional research would be beneficial to determine the psychometric properties of the assessment tools.


Injury Rates and Running Experience

Injury Rates by Running Event

Incidence of Running-Related Injuries

Prevalence of Running-Related Injuries


Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (MTSS)

Achilles Tendinopathy

Plantar Fasciitis

Patellar Tendinopathy

Lateral Ankle Sprain

Iliotibial Band Syndrome

Hamstring Muscle Strain / Tendinopathy

Tibial Stress Fracture

Patellofemoral Syndrome




Foot Strike Position

Stride Rate

Barefoot Running

Motion Control Footwear

Injury Risk




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